What Are Synthetic E-Fuels

Could Synthetic e-fuels serve as a transitional solution as industries and infrastructure gradually shift towards cleaner energy sources.

Synthetic E-Fuels

What are synthetic e-fuels? Also known as electrofuels or power-to-liquid fuels, are artificially produced fuels that are generated by combining renewable electricity (often denoted as “e” for electricity) with carbon dioxide (CO2) or other carbon sources. These fuels are manufactured through a two-step process that involves using renewable electricity to produce hydrogen, which is then combined with CO2 to synthesize liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

Here’s a breakdown of the process and key characteristics of synthetic e-fuels:

Hydrogen Generation

Renewable electricity, typically sourced from solar, wind, or hydropower, is used to power an electrolysis process that splits water (H2O) into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2). This hydrogen serves as the energy carrier for the synthetic e-fuel production process.

Carbon Capture or Sourcing

Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be captured from various sources, such as industrial emissions or direct air capture, or sourced from biomass or other carbon-rich feedstocks.


The captured CO2 or carbon-rich feedstock is combined with the hydrogen obtained from the electrolysis step in a chemical process. Different synthesis pathways, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or methanol synthesis, can be used to create liquid hydrocarbon fuels with molecular structures similar to conventional fossil fuels.

Fuel Formation:

The resulting synthetic e-fuels, which can include synthetic gasoline, synthetic diesel, or synthetic kerosene, are designed to be compatible with existing internal combustion engines and fuel distribution infrastructure.

Key benefits of synthetic e-fuels include:

Carbon Neutrality:

When produced using renewable electricity and carbon capture technologies, synthetic e-fuels have the potential to achieve near-zero net carbon emissions, contributing to efforts to mitigate climate change.

Energy Storage:

e-fuels offer a way to store excess renewable energy generated during times of surplus, enabling the stored energy to be released when needed through combustion or other conversion methods.

Compatibility with Existing Infrastructure:

Can be used in conventional internal combustion engines and existing fuel distribution networks, making them suitable for sectors that are difficult to electrify directly, such as aviation, heavy transport, and certain industrial applications.

However, there are challenges to consider:

Efficiency and Costs:

The conversion of renewable electricity to synthetic e-fuels involves multiple energy conversion steps, which can lead to energy losses and higher costs compared to using electricity directly in electric vehicles or other applications.

Scale and Availability:

Scaling up the production of synthetic e-fuels to make a significant impact on global energy systems requires substantial investments in production facilities, as well as the development of supply chains and distribution networks.

Competing Technologies:

As renewable electricity becomes more affordable and electric vehicle technologies advance, the economic viability and competitiveness of synthetic e-fuels might be challenged by more direct electrification solutions. Therefore, It’s unlikely that synthetic e-fuels will completely replace electric vehicles (EVs) in the near future, but they could serve as a complementary solution for specific applications and sectors where direct electrification is challenging. Both synthetic e-fuels and EVs have their own strengths and limitations, and their adoption will likely depend on various factors including technology advancements, market demand, and policy decisions.